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Co-creation of Value Proposition: Stakeholders Co-creating Value Propositions of Goods and Services
Copy URL. See all articles by Frank T. Piller Frank T. Abstract The objective of this paper is to discuss the impact of social media on customer co-creation in the innovation process. Piller, Frank T.
Die Unternehmung, Vol. Frank T. Register to save articles to your library Register. However, as noted by Murray, the collaboration in these projects is unequal with the outsider initiating the projects and taking the lead throughout ibid. Designing for the local community typically involves stages of situated requirements gathering, followed by periods of implementation and deployment.
Introduction to Service Experience and Co-creation
Designing for minority groups has often focused on designing practical technology solutions which address well-defined, specific ICT design problems such as accessing digital content and social networks. Bidwell To address these issues designers often follow a Participatory Design ethos cf. Greenbaum and Loi and focus on designing with local communities rather for local communities. For example, recognizing the practical constraints of designing in remote and infrastructure-poor settings, Wyche et al. In their case study Wyche et al.
Audio Pacemaker Bidwell and Winschiers-Theophilus, is an example of an in-situ design and development concept which supports rural African healers in recording and sharing descriptions of traditional medicinal plants. Audio Pacemaker was revised in-situ as part of a process of co-design with local healers. In this way local participants were engaged with refining an existing piece of technology to suit their needs through in-situ observation and design discussions.
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Similarly, MXShare Bidwell et al. In these approaches, outsiders design and build the software systems with local users in response to their needs. However, over extended periods of study, these software systems are sometimes found to be less useful and less used than physical solutions to practical problems such as solar powered mobile phone chargers Bidwell et al. The lack of sustainability in these cases may stem more from pragmatic issues such as ICT maintenance rather than from systemic design issues.
Significant amount of time and resources have been devoted to the introduction of ICT into rural educational practices with varying levels of uptake Therias et al.
This has consequently resulted in several studies of the role of introduced ICT in rural education, and how such system can be better designed for local communities. For example, in their exploratory studies in northern India Kam et al.
Over a 2-week period they undertook design and prototyping workshops with school children to develop language learning computer games based on existing games. Again, these projects typically focus on introducing ICT into a rural location to address specific perceived educational needs. Co-creativity, where creativity is shared by two or more people Sanders and Stappers, , has become increasingly popular in HCI4D Irani et al. For example, CrowdMemo Balestrini et al. The key value here is that not only is the content generated by, and aimed at the local community, but that the technological aspects of the project were initiated locally.
This is argued to increase the sense of ownership of the project, and the potential for the project to become self-sustaining beyond the outsider engagement. Barbosa et al.
Co-creating services—conceptual clarification, forms and outcomes | Emerald Insight
Outside researchers explored current local musical instruments, practice and repertoire, then undertook an iterative design and build process followed by feedback from local musicians. The final instruments were then used in a public jam with the local community which provided an opportunity for co-creation with local musicians, and contributed value to the local community through a shared social artistic experience. The FLS concept involves extended periods of design collaboration, typically up to 3 months, in which shared learning of local cultural insights and expertise together with outsider design skills combine to produce shared value which remains in the local context.
An example design project included a range of bamboo furniture designed primarily for local consumption and employing a novel flat-pack approach to bamboo furniture distribution to reduce cost. Similarly, Wang et al. Importantly, they focused on both outsider initiated product development e. Despite extensive design and market research work, the value of these co-design activities lies in the knowledge gained and shared by local and outside designers, rather than physical products for sale. As Jin et al.
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In contrast to these approaches which resulted in the co-creation of physical products, Jones et al. Through a series of participatory design workshops Jones et al. As with Jin et al. For HCI4D, an important challenge is how to structure co-creation processes to foster the equality and initiative needed to achieve shared goals between outsiders and locals.
Furthermore, the co-creation often takes place within a local network of people whose links are not necessarily transparent to outsiders Winschiers-Theophilus et al. These issues can lead to unsustainable solutions being developed even through a participatory process, as Kensing and Blomberg , p. Brewer et al.
This means that effective co-design requires using local knowledge to understand the appropriateness of certain technologies over others. They also argue that motivating local groups requires building relationships and showing concrete early results. Ho et al. For example, in some cases the general aims of design projects are defined before engaging with the local community itself. In such cases local participants are only able to make marginal input to the design work. Anokwa et al. The majority of the approaches discussed above focus their co-creation activities on specific utilitarian design goals, e.
Audio Pacemaker: the design of a system for recording and presenting knowledge of uses of traditional medicinal plants. Responding to this, our research program explores the possible value of non-utilitarian design goals for cross-cultural co-creation. As discussed in Section 3. The research goal of this article is: to explore the kinds of cross-cultural collaboration and value that emerge through the cross-cultural co-creation of an interactive drama.
This raises a number of research questions: RQ1 How can we structure a rapid co-creation process with digital making in-situ? RQ2 What kinds of cross-cultural collaboration and value emerge during the co-creation given that the goal is non-utilitarian? RQ4 What are the challenges and limitations in undertaking non-utilitarian focused co-creation across cultures? In the next section we describe the Kam ethnic minority population in Hengling village, China, who worked with us in this research.
Following this we describe our approach to structuring and driving co-creation with the Kam community, and the outputs of our creative process.
We then report on analysis of interviews and observations of the co-creative process and its reception by local audiences. Finally, we reflect on our observations of co-creation across cultures and our approach to providing a shared focus for co-creation. Every year since , Hunan University, China, has undertaken research projects with the local communities in Tongdao County through an ongoing social innovation initiative Ji et al. Projects undertaken include ethnographic studies of local crafts such as brocade work Wang et al.
The Kam minority have distinct cultural traditions and language called Dong or Gaeml to the dominant Han ethnic group in China who mostly speak Mandarin Chinese. Kam villages are usually comprised of wood and stone buildings with elaborate architectural features see Geary, for an in-depth description of the Kam minority.
As we are interested in co-creation around ICT it is worth noting here that like some of the ethnic minority groups described by other researchers in Section 2 , the Kam are mobile-first—their first experience of digital technology is typically a smartphone, not a desktop computer or tablet. This clearly shapes their experience of, and expectations of technology. The authors of this article formed the core facilitating team of outsiders who led the project with extensive research and design experience, and were supported by two locals responsible for local organization and logistics.
One of the authors had visited Hengling village for two previous social innovation projects and has an understanding of the area and local community networks. We assembled a multi-disciplinary outsider team of five foreign European students four undergraduate and one postgraduate with professional design experience paired with five domestic Chinese postgraduate design students three with experience in social design, and one with professional design experience.
We note that none of the students were professional musicians, though two domestic students had Western and Chinese classical music training.